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Referring to the exhibit, what do the brackets [ ] in the AS path identify?
The brackets [ ] in the AS path identify an AS set, which are groups of AS numbers in which the order does not matter. An AS set is used when BGP aggregates routes from different ASs into a single prefix. For example, if BGP aggregates routes 10.0.0.0/16 and 10.1.0.0/16 from AS 100 and AS 200, respectively, into a single prefix 10.0.0.0/15, then the AS path for this prefix will be [100 200]. An AS set reduces the length of the AS path and prevents routing loops.
In which two ways does OSPF prevent routing loops in multi-area networks? (Choose two.)
OSPF is an interior gateway protocol that uses link-state routing to exchange routing information among routers within a single autonomous system. OSPF prevents routing loops in multi-area networks by using two methods: area hierarchy and SPF algorithm. Area hierarchy is the concept of dividing a large OSPF network into smaller areas that are connected to a backbone area (area 0). This reduces the amount of routing information that each router has to store and process, and also limits the scope of link-state updates within each area. All areas are required to connect to area 0 either directly or through virtual links2. SPF algorithm is the method that OSPF uses to calculate the shortest path to each destination in the network based on link-state information. The SPF algorithm runs on each router and builds a shortest-path tree that represents the topology of the network from the router’s perspective. The SPF algorithm prunes looped paths within an area by choosing only one best path for each destination3.
References: 2: https://www.juniper.net/documentation/us/en/software/junos/ospf/topics/concept/ospf-area-overview.html 3: https://www.juniper.net/documentation/us/en/software/junos/ospf/topics/concept/ospf-spf-algorithm-overview.html
The network shown in the exhibit is based on IS-IS
Which statement is correct in this scenario?
IS-IS is an interior gateway protocol that uses link-state routing to exchange routing information among routers within a single autonomous system. IS-IS uses two types of addresses to identify routers and areas: system ID and area address. The system ID is a unique identifier for each router in an IS-IS domain. The system ID is 6 octets long and can be derived from the MAC address or manually configured. The area address is a variable-length identifier for each area in an IS-IS domain. The area address can be 1 to 13 octets long and is composed of high-order octets of the address. An IS-IS instance may be assigned multiple area addresses, which are considered synonymous. Multiple synonymous area addresses are useful when merging or splitting areas in the domain1. In this question, we have a network based on IS-IS with four routers (R1_1, R1_2, R2_1, and R2_2) belonging to area 0001. The area address for area 0001 is 49.0001. The NSEL byte for area 0001 is the last octet of the address, which is 01. The NSEL byte stands for Network Service Access Point Selector (NSAP Selector) and indicates the type of service requested from the network layer2. Therefore, the correct statement in this scenario is that the NSEL byte for area 0001 is 01.
References: 1: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/iproute_isis/configuration/xe-16/irs-xe-16-book/irs-ovrvw-cf.html 2: https://www.juniper.net/documentation/us/en/software/junos/is-is/topics/concept/is-is-routing-overview.html